Reproductive System Procedures
A reproductive system disease represents any medical condition that can occur in any reproductive system organs.
The reproductive system (RS) consists of both internal and external sexual organs in males and females that work together to procreate.
- Testes - the organs responsible for sperm production, that are protected by the scrotum (sac covered in 7 layers);
- Prostate and seminal vesicles - where the ejaculation fluid is produced and semen is stored.
- Penis - the organ responsible for copulation and transport of semen to the vagina for procreation;
- Ovaries - organs responsible for the production of ova (female eggs);
- Fallopian tubes - the place where the sperm meets the mature ovum;
- Uterus - the major organ where the fetus grows from the day of implantation of the embryo till the day of birth;
- Cervix - part of the uterus that connects it to the vagina and has major importance during the passage of the sperm from the vagina to the uterus.
- Vagina - the place where the male ejaculates the sperm for procreation;
- Vulva - consisting of two pairs of labia (Majora and minora) and clitoris;
- The breasts – are important in the feeding process of the baby, although they are not always considered part of the RS.
Reproductive system diseases:
- Kallmann syndrome - can occur in both males and females and it is characterized by a failure to start or complete puberty which leads to infertility;
- Androgen insensitivity syndrome AIS - a condition that is clinically significant only for males. It is characterized by the inability of the cell to respond to androgen hormone (sexual hormone) stimulation and prevents the masculinization of male genitalia and the development of secondary sexual characteristics;
- Intersexuality - a disorder of sex development that does not fit typical notions of male or female bodies. Previously referred to as hermaphrodites;
- Other conditions can be abnormalities of the anatomy, number or function of the internal or/and external sexual organs in both men and women.
Infections of the RS:
Non-specific infections that could affect any part of the reproductive tract. The symptoms, diagnostics, and treatment differ depending on the type of the infection;
- Sexually transmitted diseases STD - infections that are commonly spread by sexual intercourse (especially unprotected) and rarely have symptoms, making them harder to diagnose during early stages.
- Bacterial: Chlamydia, Gonorrhea (the clap), Mycoplasma, Chancroid, Syphilis, Ureaplasma, Granuloma Inguinale;
- Fungal: Candidiasis (yeast infection);
- Viral: Viral Hepatitis (Hepatitis B infection), Herpes simplex (HS virus 1, 2), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), HPV (Human Papillomavirus), Molluscum Contagiosum;
- Parasites: Crab louse (crabs), Scabies;
- Protozoal: Trichomoniasis (trich).
- Ovarian insufficiency (premature menopause) - occurs when the ovarian function is damaged and the ovaries are no longer able to produce eggs for procreation;
- Menopause - (normal loss of menstrual cycle) that occurs due to aging, usually at the age of 50 years. It is the result of decreased levels of female hormones (estrogen, progesterone) and can lead to osteoporosis (decreased bone density).
- Polycystic ovary syndrome - a condition associated with hormonal and metabolic changes that present with multiple cysts (fluid-filled sacs) and maybe a cause of infertility;
- Low testosterone - decreased levels of testosterone in men of reproductive age, which may lead to reduced libido and infertility as well as decreased secondary sexual characteristics.
Functional problems of the RS:
- Impotence - the inability of a male to have and/or maintain an erection;
- Premature ejaculation - the inability of a male to control ejaculation;
- Hypoactive sexual desire disorder - a decreased level of sexual desire and activity;
- Female sexual arousal disorder - a condition of low, insufficient or absent lubrication in females during sexual activity;
- Dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps) - severe pain during a period that interferes with daily activities;
- Ectopic pregnancy - a condition in which the embryo is implanted elsewhere than the uterus (where it is normally implanted).
Cancer of the RS organs can be benign or malignant:
- Testicular cancer - cancer of the testicle or both testes;
- Prostate cancer - cancer of the prostate gland;
- Penile cancer - cancer of the penis;
- Ovarian cancer - cancer of the ovary or both ovaries;
- Fallopian tube cancer - cancer of the fallopian tube;
- Uterine cancer - cancer of the uterus;
- Cervical cancer - cancer of the cervix;
- Vaginal cancer - cancer of the vagina;
- Vulvar cancer - cancer of the vulva.